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Economic variations in dating

Smoothing food price trends in Nigeria: Political economy issues and policy vistas This study reviews the political economy issues surrounding the 2008 food crisis in Nigeria; the lessons learned from management of the crisis; analyses the performance of policies aimed at stabilizing prices; and proffers policy measures for prevent...

India’s political economy responses to the global food price shock of 2007–08: Learning some lessons India’s policy responses to the food price crisis were strong. Domestic support prices of wheat and rice were raised substantially...

Ultrasound Dating Ultrasound can be used to date pregnancies, especially when the LMP is not known (for example, pregnancy after a delivery but before a menses occurred or irregular menses without predictable ovulation).

Ultrasound dating is based on a series of measurements of the gestational sac in very early pregnancies and of the embryo or fetus itself as pregnancy progresses.

In the second trimester, the determination also defaults to the LMP unless the ultrasound estimate is more than two weeks different from the LMP.

We follow the same process in the third trimester, with a three-week difference.

Physical Exam Pregnancies can also be dated with a physical exam.

During a pelvic exam, the uterus can be felt coming over the pubic bone at about 12 weeks’ LMP and at the umbilicus (navel) at about 20 weeks.It is also important to note that the phrase “late-term,” popularly used by the media to describe later abortions, has no medical meaning and is not used in any medical documentation.It is not used by medical professionals to describe pregnancy length and is solely a political term.That way, regardless of where they trained or where they practice, any two doctors dating a pregnancy will predict the same due date or gestational age.However, the timing of the actual delivery is not so predictable.Sometimes we do use a trimester system if we are seeking to describe how far along a woman is in general terms.Trimesters, however, have a variability of a few weeks, so they should be thought of as general benchmarks.The average time between menstrual periods is about 28 days, and ovulation occurs about 14 days before the next period begins.So when we say a woman’s estimated gestational age is six weeks’ LMP, we mean she conceived about four weeks ago, around the time of ovulation.The uterus then typically rises above the navel at about a centimeter a week after that.But a physical exam can be misleading (due to factors such as twins, uterine tumors, or obesity) and is not used as the main way to date a pregnancy if LMP or ultrasound is available.

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